What is Air Purifier and How it works? | Step By Step Guide

Since global warming and air pollution is at their peak, it has become difficult for even a layman to breathe in clean non-toxic air. Thanks to the inventor of an air purifier who has saved the life not only of patients but of every human and pet as well. In this article, we are giving insight and will highlight what is an air purifier and how it works. So, let’s get started.

Firstly, the device.

What is an air Purifier and How it works?

Air purifier, an air filtering device invented back in 1963 by Klaus and Manfred Hammes in the US was made to improve the air quality indoors. The basic aim of this device is to provide healthy air, free of contaminants and non-toxic substances for patients suffering from asthma or respiratory issues.

An air purifier minimizes exposure to airborne pollutants that include dust mites, pollens, pet dander, or any other impurity that can harm or aggravate bad air quality conditions.

Other than that, this unit also contributes to eliminating the odor, pet smell, cigarettes, smoke, mold, and even some units dehumidify as well. However, this is another topic, here our focus is on air purifiers so, let’s speak of it.

These air purifiers are further classified into different categories based upon their working principles i.e. their filters,

 Types of Air Purifier

Types of Air Purifiers

Air purifiers are categorized into various styles, including

  • Small air purifier
  • Large air purifier
  • Portable air purifier
  • HAVOC/whole house air purifier
  • Desktop/personal air purifier
  • Necklace air purifier, etc.

All of them are available in different sizes and shapes based on the user’s need, you can select whatever design suits you.

Keep in mind that whatever the design an air purifier has, it works with different filters, and sometimes, works in a combination to provide ultimate performance. These filters are

  • HEPA Filters
  • Activated Carbon Filters
  • Ionizer
  • Ozone filter
  • UV technology

1.    HEPA

High-Efficiency particulate air; HEPA is the most paramount and commonly used filter that is capable of removing microns at 99.97% efficiently without any difficulty.

It can trap particles of different sizes with ease as it is made with the multi-layered netting of small fiberglass threads, thin as hair strands. This weaved net is enclosed in a plastic or metallic frame and captures the contaminants.

You need to replace HEPA filters every 3 to 6 months.

1.    Activated Carbon Filter

The activated carbon filters are pores that have small holes with excellent absorbency and chemical bonding. They effectively catch pollutants such as smoke, emission of gases, kitchen smoke, pungent smells, etc.

It sucks the air, absorbs the pollutants, and through the air back into the room and prevents recontamination.

Activated Carbon filters run longer than HEPA.

2.    Ion Filters

Ions are naturally occurring particles having a negative and positive charge they obtain this charge by either getting or losing an electron.

The ionizer or air purifier with an ion filter works by releasing negative ions into the air that then attracts the floating pollutant making them heavier. This makes the particles sit on the floor, walls, or on the furniture.

3.    Ozone Filter

The ozone air purifiers are usually not legal in many states as they generate gas ozone O3. Although they are made to persuade people that they are safe, and they are ozone air purifiers got the certification that the amount is ozone gas that they release is safe.

However, if you are suffering from lung issues, we do not recommend going for such air purifiers as they are more likely to damage by causing adverse effects.

4.    UV- Technology

UV-technology air purifiers are more effective to fight germs. They efficiently remove the airborne particles from the air making it germ-free.

However, it is an effective technique for killing pathogens such as bacteria and viruses. This technique uses a UV lamp, and as microorganisms pass by the UV rays emitted by the lamp, cellular or genetic damage occurs, resulting in the microorganism’s death.

How does an air purifier work?

The working of the air purifier is based on the filter technology used in it. Air purifiers often have a filter, or many filters, as well as a fan that draws in and circulates air. Pollutants and particles are collected when air passes through the filter, and clarify the air is pumped back in the living room. 


Filters are often constructed of paper, fiber (commonly fiberglass), or mesh, and must be replaced on a regular basis to maintain efficiency.


A fan pulls air through filters that trap airborne particles, either by physical means or chemical means depending upon the type of air cleaner being used. 

Carbon Filter

Air cleaners that use carbon-based filtration systems use chemical reactions to trap air pollutants. 

Frequently Asked Questions

1.    Which one is a popular kind of air purifier?

Hepa air purifier for home is available in various sizes depending on the air quality requirements of a room or an area. For small homes, usually, HEPA air purifiers with a coverage of about 300 sq ft work fine while for medium to large homes air purifiers with higher coverage are required.

HEPA filter

In most air cleaners, a HEPA filter is used which stands for High-Efficiency Particulate Air filters and these are designed to capture at least 99.97% of particles as small as 0.03 microns from the air stream entering a room or building through its exhaust system.

2.    What is the best air purifier size for a family?

The size of the air purifier is not based on the family but on the room dimensions and usability. You need to get an air purifier by checking the CADR (clean air delivery rating) and the coverage area.

Other than that, you can also look for the filters HEPA, however, is the must-have so make sure you know the room size where you need to place it, the filters, and the CADR rating. HEPA filter air purifiers may cost you initially but will be inexpensive when it comes to maintaining them.

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